The Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University is a quarterly scientific open access journal dedicated to advancing science in the field of security and defence. While our main emphasis is on empirical research, we also welcome theoretical articles and reviews. We actively encourage interdisciplinary studies and international comparative analysis. Our goal is to foster military scientific research on a global scale, facilitating international dialogue and exchange of information among military and civilian researchers. All articles published in The Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University are indexed in various international databases and catalogues: Director of open access journals (DOAJ), EBSCO International Security & Counter-Terrorism Reference Center, ProQuest, Index Copernicus, Central and Eastern European Online Library (C.E.E.O.L),ERIH PLUS, Crossref (DOI)     

e-ISSN 2284-9378; p-ISSN 2284-936X

The Bulletin is published by the "Carol I" National Defence University Publishing House.

Call for papers

We invite you to contribute to the upcoming issue of the journal.

Paper Submission Deadline: 15th of May.



All articles within the Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University are available online to all users immediately upon publication. Non-commercial use and distribution in any medium are permitted, provided the author and the journal are properly credited. Open access aims to maximize the visibility of research and differs from free online access as it provides reuse rights, provided full attribution is given (under the terms of the CC BY-NC-SA license).

Publishing in the Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University is free of charge, as all article processing charges (APCs) are supported by "Carol I" National Defence University Publishing House.


The names and personal data entered on this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal. These data will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party, in full compliance with GDPR.


Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defense University, is seeking to publish profound, rigorous, well-written, high-quality, high-impact papers to generate discussion, debate, and fresh perspectives on security and defence topics.

Ethical compliance and integrity of authors are essential to writing and publication. Important ethical concerns to consider while writing a manuscript include etiquette, fraudulent publication, plagiarism, duplicate publication, authorship, and potential for conflict of interest. As an academic online publication,  the Bulletin is fully committed to respecting The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity

According to the code of conduct, the Bulletin's Editorial Team will report any cases of suspected plagiarism or duplicate publishing. We reserve the right to use plagiarism-detecting software to screen submitted papers at all times (https://sistemantiplagiat.ro/) to uncover potential plagiarism.

Authors must ensure that they have written original works. Additionally, they must confirm that the manuscript has not been submitted elsewhere. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources should be appropriately credited and referenced. Authors are also responsible for language editing before submitting the article. Authors submitting their works to the journal for publication as original articles confirm that the submitted works represent their authors’ contributions and have not been copied or plagiarized in whole or in part from other works without citation. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources (including online sites) should be appropriately credited and referenced. All authors should disclose financial or other conflicts of interest that might influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript (financial support for the project should be disclosed). When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, the author must promptly notify the journal editor and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. An author agrees to the license agreement before submitting the article.

All articles must be submitted using the online submission procedure. Submitting a paper simultaneously to more than one publication at a time is a breach of publication ethics.

Editors must ensure a fair double-blind peer-review of the submitted articles for publication. They will strive to prevent any potential conflicts of interest between the author and editorial and review personnel. Editors will also ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept confidential before publishing. The Editor-in-Chief will coordinate the work of the editors.

Reviewers evaluate manuscripts based on content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief, or political philosophy of the authors. They must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept confidential and must report to the Editor-in-Chief if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side. They must evaluate the submitted works objectively as well as present their opinions on the works in a clear way in the review form. A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the Editor-in-Chief and excuse themselves from the review process.


The inaugural issue of The Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University was released in April-May 1937, following the endorsement and initiative of Great General Staff no. 2872/23 January 1937. This initial edition held significant importance, as it was also cited in the Rules and Regulations of the Superior War School for that year. Among the numerous military publications during the interwar period, including "The National Military Museum Bulletin" (1937-1942) edited by the National Military Museum in Bucharest, "The Soldier Guide" (1937-1939) published in Bucharest by the Great General Staff, and "The Bulletin of Military Training and Physical Education" (1926-1944) in Bucharest, The Bulletin stands out as the oldest publication, with 80 years of tradition and value.

The significance of this publication not only stems from its long-standing presence but also from its consistent quality as a platform for expressing the ideas of Romania's most important military higher education institutions. The inception of the "Superior War School Bulletin" (the publication's initial title) was closely linked to the institution's restructuring. This took place at the same premises where its publishing board is presently located, a building established in 1937 by King Carol II and inaugurated in 1939 to mark the 50th anniversary of the "Superior School of War" (in Romanian, Şcoala Superioară de Războiu, formerly known as "Şcoala Superioară de Resbel," established by Royal High Decree No. 2073, issued by King Carol I on 8th August 1889).The publication of the Bulletin was considered one of the Superior War School's most important objectives in disseminating military knowledge within the army. In this regard, the director at the time, General Paul Adrian Teodorescu, stated: "By this act, we embark on the challenging mission we are eager to undertake in service of the institution."

The outbreak of the Second World War, followed by King Carol II's abdication on 6th September 1940 and the establishment of the Antonescu regime until August 1944, resulted in the temporary suspension of the Bulletin. The irregular publication schedule of the early years, which was definitively halted during the war, resumed in 1945. Each issue covered diverse topics, with explanations for interruptions detailed in an extensive "Foreword" spanning five editorial pages. These interruptions were necessary to acquaint the army with the new military doctrine, given the altered political landscape of Romania. The topics discussed highlighted issues in communicating ground, tactical, and combat reconnaissance information, offering opportunities for taking initiative and dominating opponents in defence situations. In 1956, it was decided that the "Military General Bulletin" would be issued quarterly, a practice that continues to the present day.

The name of the publication has changed over time in line with the official names of the institution. In 1991, it was renamed "Bulletin of the Academy of High Military Studies," then in 2003, it became the "National Defence University Bulletin," and since 2005, it has been known as "The Bulletin of Carol I National Defence University." These continuous changes in Romania's higher military education landscape, particularly in information dissemination, have impacted communication methods and knowledge utilization. 

The political, economic, and social transformations over the years have also significantly influenced how military specialists, engaged in the educational process, are informed. Presently, The Bulletin of “Carol I” National Defence University serves as a platform for debate and analysis for specialists with academic and professional backgrounds. The journal welcomes contributions from educators, researchers, doctoral and postdoctoral students, military and civilian personnel, as well as institutions within the defence, public order, and national security sectors.

The publication's importance and role in fostering learning and research have been consistently evaluated, leading to the implementation of various solutions. These include not only online publication but also the annual release of an English edition titled "Bulletin of Carol I National Defence University." Both editions are accessible at http://buletinul.unap.ro/.

Since 2011, The Bulletin of "Carol I" National Defence University has been recognized as a prestigious publication in the field of "Military Sciences, Intelligence, and Public Order" by the National Council for Attesting Titles, Diplomas and Certificates, and indexed in international databases. The features required for high-standard performance, aimed at adapting rapidly to organizational changes, are also present in the online version of the journal. Elements such as flexibility, creativity, teamwork, collaboration, capacity for synthesis, and intellectual curiosity justify, through their quality, the significant cultural experience of the past 80 years. All these interconnected aspects have contributed to the promotion of the institution's image in the academic environment, reinforcing, if necessary, the motto established by King Carol I: